Where to Look?

Lesson Plan


Students learn about the idea of a focal point through Waddell’s painting Motherwell’s Angus. They will have a chance to talk about the methods Waddell uses to establish multiple focal points and sketch out how changing these elements would change the overall feel of the painting.

Intended Age Group

Secondary (grades 6-12)

Length of Lesson

One 60 minute lesson

Standards Area

Visual Arts


Students will be able to:

  • define and describe examples of focal points;
  • list at least three ways Waddell encourages the viewer’s eye to move around the painting;
  • identify how Waddell used color to create focal points; and
  • feel comfortable taking creative risks to sketch out ways to change focal points in the painting.


  1. Preparation: Read the About the Art section on the Motherwell’s Angus, in particular the “Details” information. Print archery targets, prepare confetti, and have beanbags ready for the warm-up. Tape the archery targets to the floor.
  2. Warm-up: Invite student volunteers to take turns trying to toss a beanbag onto the center of the target. Next toss out the confetti and scatter it on the floor. Have student volunteers take turns trying to toss a beanbag onto the confetti. Follow up the activity with a discussion. What were they aiming for? How did they know where to aim? Where did their eyes focus during the activity? Did it matter what they hit? Was there a difference between throwing at the bulls-eye versus at the confetti?
  3. Explain to students that artists who make paintings, photographs, and other works of art are very purposeful about where they guide a viewer’s eye. Sometimes there is a purposeful focal point, an element that draws attention and/or is the main subject of the piece, just like the center of the bulls-eye. Other times, artists choose to encourage the viewer’s eye to wander, much like their eyes could wander when throwing bean bags on the confetti.
  4. Show students Motherwell’s Angus. Ask the students to look at the piece and mentally note where their eyes travel. Have them draw a “map” full of lines that indicate what they looked at in what order. Ask students: did your eyes find one main focal point? If so, where? If not, why do you think your eyes wandered instead of settling in one place? What about the painting has their eyes moving about?
  5. Share with students the “Endless Landscape” information in the “Details” portion of About the Art. Lead a short discussion about how Waddell accomplishes this effect. Talk about the role of color, hue, tones, asymmetry, etc.
  6. Ask the students how the painting would be different if one of the cows was emphasized. How could the artist emphasize one of the cows even more? Encourage students to think about color, shape, scale, and composition. What other changes would create a focal point? How would that change the feel of the painting? Have students draw rough sketches illustrating what these changes might look like.
  7. If you have time, a second lesson would allow students to paint the ideas they sketched, experimenting with different focal points based on color and shapes.


  • Printed archery targets, confetti, and beanbags (or similar object to toss)
  • A few pieces of paper and/or sketchbooks for each student
  • Pencils for each student
  • About the Art section on Motherwell’s Angus
  • Color copies of Motherwell’s Angus for students to share, or the ability to project the image onto a wall or screen


CO Standards

  • Visual Arts
    • Invent and Discover to Create
    • Observe and Learn to Comprehend
    • Relate and Connect to Transfer
    • Envision and Critique to Reflect

21st Century Skills

  • Invention
  • Self-Direction

About the Art

Motherwell's Angus

Motherwell's Angus


Theodore Waddell

Who Made It?

Theodore Waddell is a third-generation Montanan who has deep roots in both the West and American art. His pioneer grandmother moved west in a covered wagon, and his grandfather was an acquaintance of notable western artist Charles Russell. Born in Billings, Montana, Waddell grew up in Laurel, a small railroad town on the Northern Pacific line about 15 miles west of his birthplace. His father painted railroad boxcars and enjoyed working on paint-by-numbers during his time off. One of Waddell’s earliest memories is the smell of oil paint on his father’s clothes, and his love of the medium continues today.

Although Waddell set off for Eastern Montana College (now Montana State University-Billings) with an interest in architecture, he flunked a math test which derailed his plan of study. Instead, he enrolled in a studio art class offered by western landscape artist Isabelle Johnson, a decision that he cites as one of the most important and influential of his career. Within a month of meeting Johnson, Waddell decided, “I didn’t want to be alive and not make art.”

Waddell spent a year in New York City in the early 1960s, attending art classes at the Brooklyn Museum Art School and immersing himself in the work of abstract expressionism that artists like Jackson Pollock, Robert Motherwell, and Clyfford Still had developed in the 1950s. The energetic splashes, drips, and fields of oil paint on their canvases added to his lifelong love of the medium.

Despite the excitement of New York, home beckoned, and Waddell returned west to complete his degrees in studio art and education. He taught for several years at the University of Montana, and from 1976 to 1996, he settled down as a rancher, making art alongside his ranching duties. He would rise out of bed at 3:30 a.m. and paint until 8:00 a.m., when his ranch work began. During the winter—calving season—he would check on the cows at 2:00 a.m. and stay up to paint!

What Inspired It?

Waddell feels a strong connection to his home, saying that “Montana has caused me to be who I am, and I love this place,” and “I have to be where I am to paint what I paint.” He also loves animals and has spent decades of his life surrounded by cattle, sheep, horses, dogs, and other furry friends. He sees the animals and landscapes that he paints as inextricably connected; the cattle “give a focus to the landscape that can’t be perceived any other way.”

Winter is one of Waddell’s favorite times to paint. In winter, the landscape changes quickly and the snow reflects colors of light that are rarely found naturally in other seasons. Waddell also recalls that winter was one of his most productive artistic seasons when he was a rancher. Though he did need to check on his livestock, his fields required less attention during winter, giving him more time to paint.

Waddell often titles his paintings in honor of artists who have inspired him. While living and studying in New York City in the early 1960s, abstract expressionist artist Robert Motherwell was Waddell’s “all-time favorite.” Waddell was drawn to the flattened surface, textured application of paint, and abstracted forms of Motherwell’s canvases. Waddell completed a total of 25 paintings of cows in homage to the artist. This canvas is #6 of the series. Other homages to artists include Monet’s Sheep and Vincent’s Angus (after Vincent van Gogh).


Dark Spots
Dark Spots

At first glance, the dark blotches of paint scattered across the canvas might not look like any recognizable form or figure. A closer look reveals the legs, heads, and torsos of cows emerging from and disappearing into the painted landscape. Waddell wasn’t interested in depicting individual animals—none of the cows have specific features, nor are they painted with any detail. Rather, he was interested in painting the impression of a cow.

Cool Colors
Cool Colors

Waddell applied white, light blue, and lavender paint to the canvas to create the feeling and appearance of a cold winter landscape. These cool colors bleed into one another throughout the work and are visible up close.

Endless Landscape
Endless Landscape

The cold winter landscape covers the entire surface of the canvas. Without any horizon line or use of perspective, the winter prairie stretches as far as the eye can see. The expansive view also comes from a lack of a focal point, which encourages the eye to roam across the picture plane. The cows are scattered about asymmetrically, at times even coming to the edge of the canvas.

Blending of Paint
Blending of Paint

From afar, the black paint of the cows contrasts sharply with the white and pastel-colored paint that makes up the winter landscape. Up close, however, the black paint blends into the lighter colors with subtler gradations. This painting technique adds to the snowy, hazy feel of the image.

Thick Paint
Thick Paint

Waddell uses masonry trowels and specially modified brushes originally intended to apply tar to roofs to create a heavy build-up of paint on the surface of the canvas. Some areas of paint are so thick that the texture looks like frosting!

Waddell feels that “there’s a magic to oil paint that is unsurpassed by any other medium or activity. The notion of loading a brush with a big dollop of paint is about as good as it gets. The sensation of developing a line or shape with this material is wonderful.”

Large Square
Large Square

Motherwell’s Angus measures six feet square. Waddell likes to paint his works on large canvases, giving him plenty of room to play with his paints, and suggesting the vastness of the Montana landscape.

Funding for lesson plans provided by a grant from the Morgridge Family Foundation. Additional funding provided by the William Randolph Hearst Endowment for Education Programs, and Xcel Energy Foundation. We thank our colleagues at the University of Denver Morgridge College of Education.