Shrinking into Blue Water

Lesson Plan


Students will use their imaginations to shrink themselves small enough to fit into Philip Guston’s painting Blue Water. Once inside the painting, they will explore the water and shapes and use their five senses to write or tell descriptive stories about their experience in the painting.

Intended Age Group

Elementary (grades K-5)

Length of Lesson

One 40 minute lesson

Standards Area

Visual Arts


Students will be able to:

  • use their imaginations to shrink themselves and fit inside Guston’s painting;
  • use descriptive and sensory words to describe what it’s like being inside the painting;
  • choose vocabulary that communicates their thoughts clearly and precisely; and
  • tell or write descriptive stories that incorporate details from their painting and the five senses.


  1. Show the students Blue Water and ask them what shapes and colors they see. If they could be inside this painting, where would they want to go? What kind of creature would they want to be—human? Animal? Fish? Boat? Balloon? Have each student choose something they would like to be if they had the chance to enter the painting.
  2. Have the students take a few deep breaths and imagine they are shrinking! SMALLER and smaller and s-m-a-l-l-e-r. Be as theatrical as you want to help foster the students’ imaginations!
  3. Once the students are small enough to go inside the painting, have them pretend they are the object or person they wanted to be from step one. Discuss with students what they imagine their surroundings are like, using all five senses. What do they smell? What sounds can they hear from outside on the water; from inside the shapes? What are the outside surroundings like? What does the water taste like? Have older students jot down their ideas and thoughts as a pre-writing exercise.
  4. Imaginatively return the students back to their regular size and appearance.
  5. Invite older students to compose a five sentence description of their experience in the painting using the notes they took. Encourage them to use descriptive and sensory words. For younger students, have them share out loud what it was like being inside the painting.
  6. List the five senses on the board and ask the students if they thought of each sense while they were in the painting. Ask them to add one more sentence or think of one more detail about being in the painting that addresses a sense they didn’t use. For example, if a student wrote about what sounds he hears, he has not written about taste, smell, or touch, and can add a sentence to address one of those senses.
  7. Debrief by asking the students: How did adding more sensory details make your story better? Do you think you would like living in Guston’s painting? Why or why not?


  • Paper and pen/pencils
  • About the Art section on Blue Water
  • One color copy of the painting for every four students, or the ability to project the image onto a wall or screen


CO Standards

  • Visual Arts
    • Observe and Learn to Comprehend
    • Relate and Connect to Transfer
  • Language Arts
    • Oral Expression and Listening
    • Writing and Composition
    • Reading for All Purposes

21st Century Skills

  • Collaboration
  • Critical Thinking & Reasoning
  • Information Literacy
  • Invention
  • Self-Direction

About the Art

Blue Water

Blue Water


Philip Guston

Who Made It?

Philip Guston (originally Philip Goldstein) was born in Montreal, Canada, in 1913 and moved to California when he was six. He began his professional art career in the 1930s, painting murals with social and political themes. In the 1950s, Guston began creating non-representational art (art with no recognizable subject matter), for which he became widely known and respected. After creating this kind of art for nearly two decades, Guston shocked the art world in the late 1960s when he abruptly abandoned non-representational art and started filling his new paintings with objects like eyes, cigarettes, and soles of shoes. “I got sick and tired of all that purity. I wanted to tell stories,” he said. However, the stories in Guston’s paintings weren’t always crystal clear; some of the shapes that he painted resembled real-world objects without being totally recognizable. He wanted “to paint the world as if it had never been seen before, for the first time…”

Guston worked with no master plan, and repeatedly expressed astonishment at the forms created by his own paintbrush. “I am a night painter,” he said. “So when I come into the studio in the next morning the delirium is over. I come into the studio very fearfully… And the feeling is one of, ‘My God, did I do that?’” Late in his life, Guston became completely immersed in his art. He would paint around the clock, working for more than 24 hours at a time. He wrote, “[My paintings] are large, ten feet or so, and take complete possession of me… It is a new “real world” now that I am making—I can’t stop.” Guston died in 1980 in Woodstock, New York.

What Inspired It?

“The trouble with recognizable art is that it excludes too much. I want my work to include more…I am therefore driven to scrape out the recognition…to erase it. I am nowhere until I have reduced it to semi-recognition,” Guston said. Around 1970, Guston began assembling what he called his “new alphabet”: a set of forms or shapes, mostly objects from his own life experiences, some of which actually looked like letters. Cigarettes (Guston was a chain smoker his whole life), light bulbs, body parts, and soles of shoes began crowding his compositions. These autobiographical forms shared the space with other less recognizable forms, whose origins were sometimes unclear even to the creator himself. Speaking of the forms that comprised his “new alphabet,” Guston said, “Sometimes I know what they are, but if I think ‘head’ while I’m doing it, it becomes a mess…I want to end with something that will baffle me.”

Another source of inspiration comes directly from Guston’s childhood. On his thirteenth birthday, Guston’s mother enrolled him in a correspondence course at the Cleveland School of Cartooning, a fitting gift for the boy who was a fan of newspaper comic strips Krazy Kat and Mutt and Jeff. However, Guston soon grew bored with the drawing lessons and gave up after taking only a few courses. In his mid-50s, Guston returned to his earliest inspiration. Many of his late paintings—like Blue Water—borrowed their style from the cartoons he loved as a boy.



Guston used a very limited color palette for this piece: only blue, red, white, and black.

Cartoon Quality
Cartoon Quality

The cluster of objects floating on top of the water strikes some viewers as cartoon-like. Notice the bold outlines, the simplified colors, and the rounded edges.

Large Eye
Large Eye

At the far right end of the cluster of shapes, a large eye looks back at the other forms. Sonnet Hanson, DAM Master Teacher for Modern and Contemporary Art, poses the question, “If one sees the eye as that of the artist, could it be that in some way he is looking back on the remnants or unsettling events of his life?” Other critics purport that Guston did in fact depict himself as a Cyclops or a Cyclops eye in more than one painting.

“Semi-recognizable” Shapes
“Semi-recognizable” Shapes

The ambiguous shapes in this painting are a part of what Guston called his “new alphabet.” Some forms are recognizable and some are not. Is that a ladder, or a letter? Is that a horseshoe or the sole of a shoe? Are those legs sticking out of the water, or intestines? Guston didn’t set out to create a clear-cut meaning for his paintings, so the possible interpretations are endless.

Funding for lesson plans provided by a grant from the Morgridge Family Foundation. Additional funding provided by the William Randolph Hearst Endowment for Education Programs, and Xcel Energy Foundation. We thank our colleagues at the University of Denver Morgridge College of Education.