Students will practice the important historical inquiry skill of understanding and respecting differences of opinion. After participating in an activity on how to articulate and respect differences, students will apply what they learn to a discussion of Blue Water, followed by discussion of a topic they are studying in social studies.
Intended Age GroupElementary (grades K-5)
Length of LessonOne 50 minute lesson
Standards AreaSocial Studies
Students will be able to:
- Articulate their opinion about an object or topic;
- Use factual data and visual observations to support their ideas and opinions; and
- Listen to and respect the opinions of others, even when they differ from their own.
- Teacher Preparation: Read the “Details” information from About the Art on the Blue Water
- Warm-up: Have students participate in the Respecting Differences activity. After you debrief, tell the students that you are now going to apply the same strategy to talking about a work of art.
- Show students the painting Blue Water. Have them write down two opinion statements along with specific visual details found in the painting to back their statements up (Example: I think the shapes look like too much like cartoons; the objects don’t look like objects in the real world.) In groups of 4-5, allow students to share their opinions and supporting details. Have each group write down what was similar in about their points of view and what was different.
- As a group, discuss the painting using the About the Art and “Details” information. Does knowing about the artist and having deeper insight into the piece change their opinions at all? Why or why not?
- Have each group share a few of their statements. Have student go the corner of the room that best reflects their point of view (agree, disagree, not sure). Once students are positioned, have the group point out the visual details that support their statement and see if any classmates change positions based on this new input.
- Use an event you are currently studying in social studies highlight this point. Allow students to use the same strategies used to discuss the painting to discuss the social studies topic.
- Lead a large group debriefing to summarize key points of the process and how to talk about differences of opinion.
- Web link to activity about Respecting Differences
- About the Art section on the Blue Water
- One color copy of the Blue Water for every four students, or the ability to project the image onto a wall or screen
- Social Studies
- Understand chronological order of events
- Ask questions, share information and discuss ideas about the past and present
- Analyze historical sources using tools of a historian
- Visual Arts
- Observe and Learn to Comprehend
- Relate and Connect to Transfer
- Language Arts
- Oral Expression and Listening
- Research and Reasoning
- Writing and Composition
- Reading for All Purposes
21st Century Skills
- Critical Thinking & Reasoning
- Information Literacy
About the Art
Who Made It?
Philip Guston (originally Philip Goldstein) was born in Montreal, Canada, in 1913 and moved to California when he was six. He began his professional art career in the 1930s, painting murals with social and political themes. In the 1950s, Guston began creating non-representational art (art with no recognizable subject matter), for which he became widely known and respected. After creating this kind of art for nearly two decades, Guston shocked the art world in the late 1960s when he abruptly abandoned non-representational art and started filling his new paintings with objects like eyes, cigarettes, and soles of shoes. “I got sick and tired of all that purity. I wanted to tell stories,” he said. However, the stories in Guston’s paintings weren’t always crystal clear; some of the shapes that he painted resembled real-world objects without being totally recognizable. He wanted “to paint the world as if it had never been seen before, for the first time…”
Guston worked with no master plan, and repeatedly expressed astonishment at the forms created by his own paintbrush. “I am a night painter,” he said. “So when I come into the studio in the next morning the delirium is over. I come into the studio very fearfully… And the feeling is one of, ‘My God, did I do that?’” Late in his life, Guston became completely immersed in his art. He would paint around the clock, working for more than 24 hours at a time. He wrote, “[My paintings] are large, ten feet or so, and take complete possession of me… It is a new “real world” now that I am making—I can’t stop.” Guston died in 1980 in Woodstock, New York.
What Inspired It?
“The trouble with recognizable art is that it excludes too much. I want my work to include more…I am therefore driven to scrape out the recognition…to erase it. I am nowhere until I have reduced it to semi-recognition,” Guston said. Around 1970, Guston began assembling what he called his “new alphabet”: a set of forms or shapes, mostly objects from his own life experiences, some of which actually looked like letters. Cigarettes (Guston was a chain smoker his whole life), light bulbs, body parts, and soles of shoes began crowding his compositions. These autobiographical forms shared the space with other less recognizable forms, whose origins were sometimes unclear even to the creator himself. Speaking of the forms that comprised his “new alphabet,” Guston said, “Sometimes I know what they are, but if I think ‘head’ while I’m doing it, it becomes a mess…I want to end with something that will baffle me.”
Another source of inspiration comes directly from Guston’s childhood. On his thirteenth birthday, Guston’s mother enrolled him in a correspondence course at the Cleveland School of Cartooning, a fitting gift for the boy who was a fan of newspaper comic strips Krazy Kat and Mutt and Jeff. However, Guston soon grew bored with the drawing lessons and gave up after taking only a few courses. In his mid-50s, Guston returned to his earliest inspiration. Many of his late paintings—like Blue Water—borrowed their style from the cartoons he loved as a boy.
Guston used a very limited color palette for this piece: only blue, red, white, and black.
The cluster of objects floating on top of the water strikes some viewers as cartoon-like. Notice the bold outlines, the simplified colors, and the rounded edges.
At the far right end of the cluster of shapes, a large eye looks back at the other forms. Sonnet Hanson, DAM Master Teacher for Modern and Contemporary Art, poses the question, “If one sees the eye as that of the artist, could it be that in some way he is looking back on the remnants or unsettling events of his life?” Other critics purport that Guston did in fact depict himself as a Cyclops or a Cyclops eye in more than one painting.
The ambiguous shapes in this painting are a part of what Guston called his “new alphabet.” Some forms are recognizable and some are not. Is that a ladder, or a letter? Is that a horseshoe or the sole of a shoe? Are those legs sticking out of the water, or intestines? Guston didn’t set out to create a clear-cut meaning for his paintings, so the possible interpretations are endless.