The Cheyenne

1903

Object

Artist

Frederic Remington, American, 1861-1909
Born: Canton, New York_need_to_fix

Manufacturer

Roman Bronze Works

Country

  • United States

Object Info

Object: sculpture
Not currently on view
Object ID: D8DBF076-EB3F-458D-B617-E090E22CFCE4

Medium/Technique

Bronze

Credit

Funds from the William D. Hewit Charitable Annuity Trust

About

About the Artist

Frederic Remington was born in Canton, New York, and attended the Yale School of Art, where he studied drawing and played football. When he was twenty years old, he traveled west for a vacation and mailed a rough sketch to Harper’s Weekly magazine, kicking off his career as an illustrator. He had tried his hand at sheep ranching in Kansas, but after a couple of years returned to New York, making trips west from his home in the East. Most of his work was created in his studio in New Rochelle, New York. Remington’s artistic career began with painting and drawing, but a friend encouraged him to try his hand at sculpture in 1895. He made 24 sculptures in his last 14 years as an artist. Remington liked the permanence of bronze sculpture: “My water colors will fade—but I am to endure in bronze,” he said. He died at age 48 at the height of his career.

What Inspired It

Remington felt compelled to record an American West that he believed to be disappearing. He loved to portray the action and energy of the West and did not feel confined by what were considered the limits of the bronze medium. In this sculpture, Remington has defied the traditional means of supporting sculpture, making the falling robe a part of the action. The horse and rider are full of energy and appear to be moving quickly. Remington often worked from photographs to achieve this authentic image of motion. To create this bronze sculpture, Remington used a method called lost wax casting. A “cast” is a form that is created by pouring liquid metal into a mold. Although it is over 6000 years old, the lost wax method had been newly introduced in the United States during Remington’s time. The process involves six different steps—during each step a new model of the sculpture is made. Lost wax casting allows the artist to make quick changes and fine-tune the wax model before each pour. Remington took advantage of this opportunity for experimentation, and often visited the foundry that produced his casts at this stage. His additional artistic input is evident in the Denver Art Museum’s sculpture, especially in the textures and color of the piece.

Different Textures
Different Textures

Compare the smooth skin of the Indian to the rippled musculature of the horse’s flank to the high relief texture of the buffalo robe. This sculpture shows the texture variation that was possible using the lost wax method, and it is evidence that this cast received a great deal of personal attention from the artist.

Color
Color

The golden honey color of this particular cast is much lighter than other casts of The Cheyenne, which may be evidence that Remington himself was involved in selecting it. He usually preferred a blue-black patina, so this was probably an experiment.

Four Hooves Off the Ground
Four Hooves Off the Ground

In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge’s (MY-bridge) photos of racehorses in motion proved that all four hooves leave the ground at one time. Wanting to show this in bronze, Remington added a buffalo robe falling toward the ground as a support for the flying horse.

Accurate Leg Position
Accurate Leg Position

Muybridge’s photos also revealed another misconception: in their off-the-ground position, the horse's legs were bunched together under the belly, rather than in the “hobbyhorse attitude,” with front legs stretched forward and hind legs backward, which was traditional in painting. In using this pose for The Cheyenne, Remington was one of the first artists to take advantage of this new information.

Mane & Tail
Mane & Tail

The horse’s mane and tail add to the sculpture’s sense of motion—they appear to be blown back by the wind.

The Artist’s Signature
The Artist’s Signature

Remington’s signature changes location from cast to cast. On ours, it appears on the base.

Teaching Resources

Quick Classroom Ideas

  • Have students write a short story, placing the horse and rider in context. Where is he going? What is he doing? Is he alone? What sounds would you hear around him?
  • Have students get a simplified understanding of the casting process using Model Magic molding clay and Jell-O. Bring in small plastic sculptural shapes (e.g. blocks in the shapes of stars, triangles, etc.). Have students work in pairs to press Model Magic into a Petri dish or small box lid then make an impression of their plastic shape. Coat each mold with cooking spray, carefully pour in Jell-O and refrigerate until set.After removing their Jell-O shapes from the molds, compare them to the original object and imagine the hard work Remington went through to create his elaborate horse and rider.
  • Many bronze casts of The Cheyenne were made from Remington’s molds after his death. Have secondary students write a position paper that addresses whether or not these casts should be considered “true” Remington artworks. Think about the roles of the artist and foundry during the artistic process.

  • Of Course a Horse!
    Lesson Plan

    Of Course a Horse!

    Early childhood (ages 3-5)
    One 25 minute lesson

    Using visual observation, illustrations, and words, students compare and contrast two horse art objects, the Han dynasty Horse and Frederic Remington’s The Cheyenne

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  • Creative Problem Solving
    Lesson Plan

    Creative Problem Solving

    Elementary (grades K-5)
    One 45 minute lesson

    Students will examine Remington’s The Cheyenne and identify the challenges he faced in creating a horse that appears to be airborne. They will then work with a partner and go through a similar problem-solving process to create their own airborne sculpture.

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  • It’s in the Eyes
    Lesson Plan

    It’s in the Eyes

    Elementary (grades K-5)
    One 45 minute lesson

    Students will examine details of facial expression related to O’Keeffe’s Cow Licking. They will then use Cow Licking and other images of eyes to inspire them as they draw multiple pairs of eyes that reflect different emotions.

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  • Completely Crazy Creatures
    Lesson Plan

    Completely Crazy Creatures

    Early childhood (ages 3-5)
    One 25 minute lesson

    After observing Donald Coen’s painting Yellow Rain Jacket, students will draw in missing parts of the horse on a printed copy of the painting. Students will also add parts of other animals to the original image to create imaginative animal hybrids.

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  • A Journey Through Wind River Country
    Lesson Plan

    A Journey Through Wind River Country

    Elementary (grades K-5)
    One 45 minute lesson

    Students will examine Bierstadt’s painting Wind River Country and talk about how the painting makes them feel and why. They will also learn a little bit about the historical context of the painting and use it as the setting for an adventure for which they will write a travel journal.

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  • Functional Fashion
    Lesson Plan

    Functional Fashion

    Secondary (grades 6-12)
    One 55 minute lesson

    Students will focus on the clothing of the vaqueros in Walker’s painting and explore the connections between fashion and function. Students will also design and draw their own pieces of clothing that combine fashion with an unusual function.

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  • Who Stole the Cookie from the Cookie Jar? (Or Was It Grapes?)
    Lesson Plan

    Who Stole the Cookie from the Cookie Jar? (Or Was It Grapes?)

    Early childhood (ages 3-5)
    One 30 minute lesson

    Students will have fun acting out a scene in which they are sneaking a cookie from a cookie jar, and then use this experience to write a story inspired by Georgia O’Keeffe’s painting Cow Licking.

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  • The Sounds, Sights & Feel of Nature
    Lesson Plan

    The Sounds, Sights & Feel of Nature

    Early childhood (ages 3-5)
    One 30 minute lesson

    Students will examine Bierstadt’s painting Wind River Country, identify what they see, and imagine what’s missing. They will then touch objects similar to those in the painting to connect visual and tactile experiences.

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This video details the steps of the lost wax process to create a sculpture.

Funding for object education resources provided by a grant from the Morgridge Family Foundation. Additional funding provided by the William Randolph Hearst Endowment for Education Programs, and Xcel Energy Foundation. We thank our colleagues at the University of Denver Morgridge College of Education.

The images on this page are intended for classroom use only and may not be reproduced for other reasons without the permission of the Denver Art Museum. This object may not currently be on display at the museum.